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为什么中国和日本的国籍后缀是ese?

发表时间:2021/2/24 22:20:18  来源:linglish.net  作者:Thomas Tsoi  浏览次数:1497  
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Years ago I read a post on the Internet, saying that -ese is a derogatory ending used only on those countries that the western world thought to be inferior, so we have adjectives like Chinese, Vietnamese and Burmese. After all, many of the Asian countries do form their adjectives in -ese. But I had doubts, don't the westerners just love Japanese stuff? And why Korean, Indian, Malaysian and Indonesian then? So I decided to look for the answer myself.
多年前我在网上看到一个帖子,说"-ese"是一个贬义词尾,只用于那些西方世界认为低劣的国家,所以我们有Chinese、Vietnamese和Burmese这样的形容词。毕竟,许多亚洲国家的形容词确实是用-ese构成的。但我有疑虑,西方人不就是喜欢日本的东西吗?那为什么有Korean、Indian、Malaysian和 Indonesian呢?所以我决定自己去寻找答案。
Let us now turn to the controversial suffix -ese. Countries using -ese are scattered everywhere in Asia, Africa, South America, and we also have Portugal in Europe! But my attention turns to Italian when I give this suffix some more thought.
现在让我们来看看有争议的后缀-ese。使用-ese的国家散布在亚洲、非洲、南美洲的各个地方,我们在欧洲也有葡萄牙(Portugese)! 但是,当我对这个后缀进行深入思考时,我的注意力转向了意大利语。
In Italian, -ese is a much more common suffix of nationality than in English. Words that use -ese in Italian but not in English include danese (Danish), finlandese (Finnish), francese (French), inglese (English) and islandese (Icelandic). In fact, -ese (from Latin -ēnsis) is the next most common suffix after the Latin triplet -ian/-ean/-an.
在意大利语中,-ese是一个比英语中更常见的国籍后缀。在意大利语中使用-ese但在英语中不使用的词包括danese (Danish)、finlandese (Finnish),、francese (French)、inglese (English)和islandese (Icelandic)。事实上,-ese(来自拉丁语-ēnsis)是仅次于拉丁语三联体-ian/-ean/-an的最常见后缀。
It turns out that words ending in -ese in English actually come from Italian. Recalling that Marco Polo and other Italian traders were the first Europeans to reach the Far East, it is therefore no surprise that many Asian countries use -ese. In addition, the countries using -ese in South America are all very close to where Christopher Columbus, himself an Italian, first landed on the continent. But of course, why some countries in Africa and the Americas use the Italian suffix, while others use French or Spanish suffixes is a result of their long and complicated colonial histories.

事实证明,英语中以-ese结尾的单词实际上来自意大利语。回想一下,马可波罗和其他意大利商人是第一批到达远东的欧洲人,因此,许多亚洲国家使用-ese并不奇怪。此外,南美洲使用"-ese"的国家都非常接近克里斯托弗·哥伦布(他本人就是意大利人)首次登陆该大陆的地方。但当然,为什么非洲和美洲的一些国家使用意大利语后缀,而其他国家则使用法语或西班牙语后缀,这是其漫长而复杂的殖民历史的结果。

I think we should be reasonably convinced that the choice of suffix is not entirely a matter of chance or taste. Instead, there are historical and linguistic factors which determine why one suffix is used for a certain nationality but another suffix for a second one.
我认为我们应该有理由相信,后缀的选择不完全是一个机会或品味的问题。相反,有一些历史和语言因素决定了为什么一个后缀用于某个民族,而另一个后缀用于另一个民族。
But before English had gone global and applied its suffix to other nationalities, it was influenced by Latin and French. The default suffix of nationality used in the language was replaced by the Latinate -ian/-ean/-an, so more recently coined nationalities made use of them instead. Later, the contact between Italy and the Far East, together with the European colonization of Africa and South America, brought in some nationalities ending in -ese.
但在英语还没有走向世界并将其后缀应用于其他民族之前,它受到了拉丁语和法语的影响。语言中使用的默认国籍后缀被拉丁语系的-ian/-ean/-an所取代,所以相对后来创造的国籍词就用它们来代替。后来,意大利和远东的接触,加上欧洲对非洲和南美的殖民化,带来了一些以-ese结尾的国籍词。

也就是说,文章认为国籍词/民族词的后缀不是谁想叫什么就叫什么,都有历史和语言方面的原因。


原文地址:http://www.linglish.net/2008/10/22/so-many-nationality-suffixes/

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